This section features the studies tendered and financed by the Energy Community Secretariat. The chosen research topics reflect the objectives set in the organisation's Work Programme. In few occasions the Secretariat itself conducted the study. The findings of the final reports, in return, contribute to the work of the Energy Community. 

With the total of 52 studies conducted, this page displays the 42 most recent studies (status June 2021).

Studies by areas of work


  • 06/2021: Technical Assistance for the Connection Network Codes Implementation

    June 2021: Technical Assistance for the Connection Network Codes Implementation

    With the Decision 2018/04/PHLG-EnC, the following EU regulations were incorporated into the Energy Community acquis: 

    In order to support the DSOs and TSOs to prepare and align their grid codes to the EU regulations, the Secretariat contracted technical assistance. The overall objective was to assist system operators in further implementation, through: 

    • setting the specific parameters left to be defined on a country level (TSO/DSO),
    • drafting the provisions for respective DSO and TSO documents related to connection process and containing technical connection requirements and parameters,
    • methodologies with rationale for selection of particular technical requirements/parameters to serve as the ground for justification in future public consultations,
    • identification of connection issues and related business processes which affect both TSO and DSO and require their close collaboration.

    As a final outcome, the technical assistance resulted in a series of reports:

    • Report on identified non-exhaustive technical connection requirements to be set at national level and gap analysis on level of transposition (9 reports for each Contracting Party);
    • Setting of methodologies for determination of non-exhaustive requirements (one consolidated report);
    • Drafting the provisions for inclusion of non-exhaustive requirements in national legislation (9 reports for each Contracting Party);
    • Mutual TSO and DSO connection issues and business processes.

    The consolidated Contracting Party reports are displayed in the table below.



    Current Filters

  • 02/2021: Electricity Interconnection Targets

    February 2021: Electricity Interconnection Targets in the Energy Community

    This study observes the Energy Community Contracting Parties’ electricity interconnectivity level with respect to the EU 2020 (10%) and 2030 criteria (15% of net transfer capacity/total production capacity), in order to estimate further needs and opportunities with respect to power transmission.The transmission networks in the region are more strongly interconnected than those of the majority of EU Member States today (in relation to the peak load and installed generation capacity). All Contracting Parties comfortably satisfy the 10% interconnectivity target, only Ukraine is close to or below this threshold depending on what part of the country is observed (Burshtyn island only or the whole of Ukraine) and which cross-border transmission lines are taken into account (toward ENTSO-E or UPS/IPS or both).
    Efficient usage and full exploitation of interconnectors is unfortunately still an issue due to low net transfer capacity values at the borders, leading to restricted market activities in the observed regions.


  • 01/2021: A carbon pricing design for the Energy Community

    January 2021: A carbon pricing design for the Energy Community

    The aim of the study is to propose a carbon pricing mechanism for the time horizon until 2040, suitable for the decarbonisation of the power and district heating sectors in the Contracting Parties (CPs) of the Energy Community, considering the intrinsic political, economic and social context in these countries. The need to come up with a carbon pricing mechanism for the Energy Community turns out to be pressing for three most obvious reasons. First, almost half of all electricity produced in the CPs still comes from old and inefficient thermal power plants burning solid fossil fuels, i.e. lignite and coal, despite mounting costs, generation adequacy concerns, air quality deterioration and public health effects. Second, solids-firing generation remains artificially cheap due to distortionary policies that conceal the true cost of carbon and hamper competition and the transition to a low-carbon power market.
    Third, solids-based electricity from the CPs is leaking into the EU, undermining Europe’s climate policy and incentivising further the use of solids, i.e. coal and lignite, in the Energy Community.


  • 12/2020: Analysis of direct subsidies to coal and lignite electricity production 2018–2019

    December 2020: An analysis of Direct Subsidies to Coal and Lignite Electricity Production 2018–2019

    This report sheds light on the scale of direct subsidies in the six Energy Community Contracting Parties which own and utilize generation capacities and resources from coal and lignite: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo*, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Serbia and Ukraine. The report covers the period 2018–2019 and builds on previous research encompassing the 2015–2017 period. The World Trade Organization’s definition of subsidies was used to research, identify, calculate and describe subsidies.

    The report revealed that all six Contracting Parties analysed provided direct subsidies to electricity generation from coal/lignite during 2018 and 2019. These subsidies amounted to more than EUR 900 million. In absolute terms, the subsidies were the highest in Ukraine, Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. The report also uncovered the scale of state guaranteed loans, which amounted to almost 2 billion in 2019 alone. 


  • 05/2020: Smart Grid opportunities in the Energy Community

    May 2020: Smart Grid opportunities in the Energy Community, Scoping Study

    As defined by the International Energy Agency, “a smart grid is an energy network that uses digital and other advanced technologies to monitor and manage the transport of energy from all generation sources to meet the varying energy demands of end-users”. The aim of smart grids is to maximize system reliability, resilience and stability and minimize costs and environmental impacts by coordinating the needs and resources of end-users and generation, grid and market operators. Since smart grids are mainly based on information sharing, the new information and communication technologies are their vital enabler.

    This study is intended to give a snapshot of the current situation of smart grids and smart meter penetration in the Energy Community, based on responses to questionnaires prepared by the Secretariat in consultation with members of the ECDSO-E coordination group

    Having in view the current level of technological development in the Contracting Parties, the study pinpoints energy digitalization areas of most relevance and proposes concrete regional projects that could be eligible for technical and financial assistance.


  • 02/2020: Analysis on system adequacy and capacity mechanisms

    February 2020: Analyses on system adequacy and capacity mechanisms in the Western Balkans

    The electricity markets in the Contracting Parties are experiencing a period of complex transition, characterised by the coexistence of the liberalization and decarbonisation agendas. As a consequence, a number of plants could potentially retire, which raises security of supply concerns.

    The results of this study show that an efficient energy-only regional market would bring the flexibility and adequacy required to maintain security of supply. Yet despite all progress, an efficient regional market mechanism is still not in place in the Western Balkans. Beyond delayed reforms, government actions such as non-compliant State aid distort operational and investments signals. Such State aid is often justified by the claim to maintain security of supply, a claim for which the present study in the current conditions does not provide support.

    The authors of the study were asked to look into justifications for and modalities of potential capacity mechanisms. Without the energy market reforms completed and a functional and integrated energy-only market in place, there is little room for them. The study shows that the implementation of an immediate carbon price below the EU ETS would be a good transitional and non-critical measure to mitigate the risk of immediate closure of some of the power plants in the WB6 upon EU accession or the imposition of a carbon border price.


  • 06/2019: Analysis of direct and selected hidden subsidies to coal electricity production

    June 2019: Analysis of Direct and Selected Hidden Subsidies to Coal Electricity Production

    This final report is based on the analysis of direct and selected hidden subsidies to coal-based electricity production in the Energy Community Contracting Parties published by the Secretariat in March 2019 and the outcome of a subsequent public consultation.

    It underlines the serious situation in the coal sector of the Energy Community Contracting Parties where direct subsidies amounted to EUR 1,2 billion in 2015-2017. On top of this, hidden subsidies, notably the non- payment of a carbon tax, totalled EUR 1,9 billion on an annual basis. In the three most coal intensive Contracting Parties (Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo* and Serbia), coal subsidies were in absolute terms significantly higher than renewables support. The resulting market distortions and unsustainable consumption patterns are putting the region’s energy transition further at risk.


    Following the publication, the Secretariat has continued to revise the study in order to incorporate improved data and new information. The latest summary of comments dates from September 2019.


  • 12/2014: Final Report of SEE regional balancing integration study

    December 2014: Final Report of regional balancing integration in South East Europe

    The study aims to contribute to the reform of  electricity balancing in Southeast Europe.

    • provide a basis for the assessment of the prioritisation of integration steps of electricity balancing markets;
    • create awareness of the savings potentials of the different forms of balancing market integration; and
    • incentivise regulators and transmission system operators (TSOs) to reform their balancing regimes.

    It proposes theoretical examples for specific balancing market integration steps, each including at least 2 Contracting Parties’ areas operated by 2 or more TSOs. Each theoretical model represents at least one of the integration targets, pursuant to the Network Code Electricity Balancing, or a case of Sharing of Frequency Restoration Reserves or Replacement Reserves, pursuant to the Network Code on Load-Frequency Control and Reserves.



  • 04/2014: Development of a market coupling simulator for the eighth region

    April 2014: Development of a market coupling simulator for the eighth region

    Market Coupling will form an inevitable step forward for the Energy Community Contracting Parties in line with the European Target Model for the Day-ahead Electricity Wholesale Markets. This form of implicit trading of energy, where the commodity electricity is traded in one-step across bidding zone borders together with the cross-zonal capacities, supports the stable formation of prices, reduces transaction costs. It hence promotes the proper functioning and development of competitive markets.

    In order to educate and train stakeholders on the processes related to this method, a close to reality simulation was developed by EKC and DMS Group for the Energy Community Secretariat.


  • 01/2013: Study on the development of best practice recommendations for imbalance settlement

    January 2013: Study on the development of best practice recommendations for imbalance settlement

    The Contracting Parties are faced with inefficient balancing markets and typically have only one provider of ancillary services within their countries. This study aims at providing best practice solutions in imbalance settlement mechanisms. It thereby goes beyond the technical elements of system balancing and puts focus on commercial balancing. If was clear from the outset, that the best practice recommendations are to take into account where the Energy Community stands with respect to the 3rd Energy Package implementation.

    To this end, the Framework Guidelines developed by ACER and, based on those, the Network Codes developed by ENTSO-E are of key relevance for the future market design. In the light of this, the content of the Framework Guidelines and Network Codes, where they exist, has heavily influenced the recommendations of the present study.



  • 06/2021: Study on the potential for implementation of hydrogen technologies and its utilisation

    June 2021: Study on the potential for implementation of hydrogen technologies and its utilisation in the Energy Community

    The Secretariat commissioned a study on the potential for implementation of hydrogen technologies and its utilisation in the Energy Community in September 2020. The driver behind this initiative is to kick-start a discussion on the potential hydrogen applications in the Contracting Parties, addressing the legal feasibility, economic and technological opportunities in connection with the European Union’s hydrogen activities. The study takes stock of ongoing activities, possibilities, potential pilot project areas. To be fit to enter into the multi-stakeholder endeavour of hydrogen applications also the legal framework in place was assessed.

    The Study is composed of three, interconnected reports:

    • Synthesis Report
    • International Review
    • Economic Analysis
    • Contracting Party assessment



    Current Filters

  • 05/21: Report on methane emissions by gas transmission and distribution system operators

    May 2021: Report on methane emissions by gas transmission and distribution system operators in the Energy Community Contracting Parties

    At present, gas system operators in the Energy Community do not have legal obligations to monitor, report or decrease their methane emissions. However, this sector has significant methane emissions reduction potential. Decreasing allowed network losses, setting minimum regular maintenance levels and fostering energy efficiency measures are some of the measures that could be explored.

    This report is the outcome of the Secretariat's internal data collection project. Establishment of a baseline of methane emissions stemming from gas system operation activities is a precondition for any concrete, future emissions reduction action. The scope of the project also included joining the Methane Guiding Principles, to underline the Energy Community’s future direction in relation to methane emission policies.


  • 07/2018: Simulation for calculation of gas transmission tariffs in Serbia and Ukraine

    July 2018: Simulation of capacity weighted distance reference price methodology for calculation of gas transmission tariffs in Serbia and Ukraine

    The main objective of this project was to contribute to understanding of the effects of the Tariff Network Code (TAR NC)[1] implementation on the existing gas transmission tariffs in two selected Energy Community Contracting Parties, namely Serbia and Ukraine. Proper understanding of the possibilities delivered by the TAR NC should help all regulators to prepare for the legislative and regulatory challenges ahead in the field of gas transmission tariff setting.

    [1] REGULATION (EU) 2017/460 of 16 March 2017 establishing a network code on harmonised transmission tariff structures for gas




  • 03/2016: Cross-border gas market integration study

    March 2016: Cross-border gas market integration study

    The study analyses potential geographic scope of gas market integration discussing four regional gas market integration options comprising Contracting Parties and neighbouring EU markets. The options are assessed in their actual potential to directly access new gas sources. The study also makes a cost-benefit analysis on the four market integration options. Here the potential for welfare creation and  improved market functioning improve market functioning in terms of security of supply, competition and liquidity resulting from market integration is evaluated orientating on the indicators of the European Gas Target Model

    The study proves considerable primary benefits of the selected market integration options, ranging from 110 mil EUR to 872 mil EUR for “Ukraine West Integration” i.e. from 3 mil EUR to 62 mil EUR for “Serbia North Integration”, depending on the efficiency of both wholesale and retail markets.



  • 02/2015: How to get more fair gas prices?

    February 2015: How to get more fair gas prices?

    The price for gas imports varies substantially across Europe and often seems to have no direct relation to how far the gas has to travel to reach its destination.  In recent years, a number of countries have achieved a price change in their import contracts that they perceive as more fair. This report describes these countries’ gas sourcing and the actions that have resulted in lower prices. The report outlines the lessons learnt from these countries’ experiences and assesses the relevance of the different tools used to achieve the price change for the individual gas markets of the Energy Community Contracting Parties.
     It also reviews the nature of the different gas markets in the Contracting Parties. Building on these findings, the study outlines the most relevant tools of each Contracting Party and gives advice for next steps ahead.


  • 09/2013: Study on Regulation (EU) 994/2010 concerning measures to safeguard security of gas supply

    September 2013: Study on Regulation (EU) 994/2010 on measures to safeguard security of gas supply

    This study provides guidelines for implementing the Regulation (EU) 994/2010 in the Energy Community and evaluates possible infrastructure projects to improve security of gas supply in the region. The analysis show that the Contracting Parties have already implemented several elements of the regulation. For example, all Contracting Parties with access to natural gas already have some form of an emergency plan. However, the study concludes that Ukraine and Moldova are the only Energy Community Contracting Parties presently meeting the N-1 criterion, as defined in the Regulation..

    It finds that the Energy Community South-West sub-region could meet the N-1 criterion at regional level, presuming that interconnections between countries exist, when TAP is developed with reversed flow option, together with the construction of all gas storage projects and Slovenia - Croatia 2nd pipeline via Rogatec.


  • 12/2011: Study on funding Energy Community Gas Ring investments

    December 2011: Study on funding Energy Community Gas Ring investments

    The study examined the optimal framework which would attract investments needed to complete two sections of the future Energy Community Gas Ring. It sketched an overall approach for developing an investment framework appropriate to the conditions on both of these routes. Whilst the ‘Northern Route’ involved Croatia, Serbia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, the ‘Southern Route’ comprised Albania, FYR of Macedonia and Kosovo*. Bulgaria, Hungary, Italy, Greece and Romania would form the feed-in lines. 
    The study found the “volume and price, and payment risks pose major obstacles to new investments. Regulatory risk poses a medium risk obstacle. In countries where there are few or no gas consumers there will be no private investment in new gas infrastructure unless there are government guarantees in place.“ 



  • 04/2011: Emergency oil stocks in the energy community Level

    April 2011: Emergency Oil Stocks in the Energy Community Level

    The report examined and evaluated all the main elements of the new Council Directive 2009/119/EC for each beneficiary. It firstly assessed the state of play at national level: supply and demand, existing emergency oil stocks obligation and infrastructure, including legal review. Furthermore, the report comprised a road map that lists the steps needed to comply with the Directive 2009/119/EC obligations. The final section examined the possible regional approach to emergency oil stocks
    As regards recommendations, all the Parties need, to some extent, to enhance their crude oil and petroleum product stockholding systems in order to be in compliance with the Directive 2009/119/EC. All Parties will also have to adjust their legal and regulatory framework. The PDC recommended the Parties to continue to work with the Energy Community, International Energy Agency and other bodies to develop comprehensive and reliable data reporting systems.



  • 06/2020: Assessment of candidate PECI and PMI projects

    June 2018: Assessment of candidate Projects of Energy Community Interest and Projects for Mutual Interest

    According to the adapted Regulation, the selected priority projects are labelled in two categories: Energy Community Interest (PECIs) and Projects of Mutual Interest (PMIs). PECIs are projects that connect two Contracting Parties, or a Contracting Party and an EU Member state, under the condition that the project has already received the PCI label. All other projects, that are no PCIs can be developed on a voluntary basis as a PMI project. 
    The core of the assessment is a socio-economic cost benefit analysis of the electricity and gas infrastructure projects, that is based on market modelling, carried out by the European Electricity Market Model (EEMM) and the European Gas Market Model (EGMM) developed by REKK. The selection procedure and the applied methodology has been fine-tuned and further developed
    compared to previous assessments.


  • 06/2018: Assessment of candidate PECI and PMI projects

    June 2018: Assessment of candidate Projects of Energy Community Interest and Projects for Mutual Interest

    For the assessment of candidate projects the consultant developed an assessment methodology, building on its previous assessments of infrastructure projects on behalf of the Energy Community in 2013 and 2016, as well as taking into account the methodology applied for the latest selection of EU Projects of Common Interest (PCIs) under the same Regulation as well as the methodologies for the assessment of network infrastructure projects developed by ENTSO-E and ENTSOG. 
    The report provides an overview of all submitted investment projects as well as the modelling assumptions that have been made and agreed to with the PECI Groups, presenting detailed results and rankings of the projects. Based on the best estimate ranking and the additional information provided by the sensitivity analysis, the Groups were able to make an informed decision on the preliminary list.

    The 16th Ministerial Council adopted the list of projects of Energy Community interest in November 2018. 


  • 08/2016: Assessment of candidate PECI and PMI projects

    August 2016: Assessment of candidate Projects of Energy Community Interest and Projects for Mutual Interest

    The final report presents the project assessment methodology which has been applied for all submitted projects. In doing so this report provides an overview of all submitted investment projects as well as the modelling assumptions that have been made and agreed to with the PECI Groups, presenting detailed results and rankings of the projects. Based on the best estimate ranking and the additional information provided by the sensitivity analysis, the Groups were able to make an informed decision on the preliminary list (which does not show a relative ranking of the projects).
    The 14th Ministerial Council adopted the list of projects of Energy Community interest in October 2016. 


  • 12/2014: Report on realising Priority Infrastructure Projects for Energy Community

    December 2014: Report on Realising Priority Infrastructure Projects for Energy Community

    The report examines the challenges facing the countries that comprise the Energy Community in realising energy infrastructure investments.  It looks at the types of infrastructure projects that are deemed to be a priority by the Energy Community and at the different forms of support available to the Contracting Parties for investments in the energy sector.  It also recommends a series of actions for the Secretariat to consider and to subsequently raise with other stakeholders to improve the preparation, financing and implementation of the large-scale energy infrastructure projects.
    These recommendations are based upon the views expressed by external financiers as to the main challenges in securing investments and on the financial instruments and support programme currently or likely to be available to the countries concerned.  


  • 11/2013: Development of a methodology to identify Projects of Energy Community Interest

    November 2013: Development and application of a methodology to identify Projects of Energy Community Interest

    The Secretariat contracted a consultant to assist the Energy Strategy Task Force  in the development and the application of a methodology to identify and assess Projects of Energy Community Interest. The purpose of the final report is to explain the methodology which was applied for all proposed investment projects submitted by project promoters until 31 December 2012 or during the public consultation phase (until 29 April 2013). In doing so report also provides an overview of all submitted investment projects, as well as, on the modelling assumptions that have been made upon prior agreement by the Task Force. 
    The project assessment methodology included two phases: a pre-assessment phase and an assessment phase. Upon preparation of the methodology, the consultant assessed the eligible projects based on their merits and ranked them in accordance with criteria and weights agreed with the Task Force.  


  • 11/2011: Best practice recommendations on regulatory incentives promoting infrastructure investments

    November 2011: Development of best practice recommendations on regulatory incentives promoting infrastructure investments

    The final report describes international practise of investment incentives, the status quo of investment incentive regulation in the 8th region and  identifies room of improvement. E-Bridge Consulting was tasked to develop recommendations on incentives for investments in gas and electricity networks and to outline the necessary next steps. In concrete terms,  a questionnaire on the prevailing investment incentives in the 8th region was developed. Whilst only Hungary, Slovenia and FYR of  Macedonia had implemented the RPI-X regulation, the others have plans to introduce an incentive regulation.  Also, the majority showed intention to introduce a quality regulation in the near future.
    The study found that the ex-ante approval of investment budgets accounts for the most common investment incentive mechanism currently applied by the 8th region national regulatory authorities. 


 Renewable energy

  • 12/2020: Modalities to foster use of renewable energy sources in the transport sector

    12/2020: Modalities to foster use of renewable energy sources in the transport sector by the Energy Community Contracting Parties

    The Energy Community has started considering the implementation of the revised Renewable Energy Directive (EU) 2018/2001 (RED II) on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources.  Assuming for this study, that the provisions of RED II are transposed into the laws of the Contracting Parties without changes, the consultants develop roadmaps for each Party towards achieving the 2030 target for renewables in transport in accordance with RED II.
    Energy consumption in transport is anticipated to grow; in many, anticipated growth is stronger by 2030 than RES-T consumption for target compliance. The level of renewable energy consumption in transport in 2018 varies between the Parties from 0 to 1.6%. In all Parties, sufficient options are available to achieve RES-T targets compliant with RED II, so the study findings.
    Policies for RES-T should be based on three pillars: biofuels, electricity and hydrogen. For biofuels, RED II shifts the focus away from crop-based biofuels towards advanced biofuels: those made from a defined list of waste or residue-based or cellulosic feedstocks.



  • 07/2017: Assessment of the progress in the promotion and use of renewable energy

    July 2017: Assessment of the Progress in the Promotion and Use of Renewable Energy in the Energy Community

    The modelling results on the expected future progress by 2020 indicate the likelihood by each Contracting Party to achieve the binding 2020 RES target as required under the RES Directive. There are two distinct scenarios concerning the future development of energy demand (i.e. reference and efficiency trends, originally based on CPs NREAPs, but corrected in accordance with actual demand developments). Results suggest that Bosnia and Herzegovina, Moldova and Montenegro, are expected to reach the given 2020 target with currently implemented and planned policy measures – if energy demand will develop as planned according to the low demand case (assuming complementary energy efficiency measures to be taken or other reasons that justify the low demand path). Despite the expected increase in absolute terms, Albania, Kosovo*, FYR of Macedonia, Serbia and Ukraine would fail to achieve their 2020 RES targets.


  • 10/2015: Assessing the implementation of Renewable Energy Action Plan

    October 2015: Assessing the implementation of Renewable Energy Action Plan

    The Secretariat’s study analysed the Contracting Parties progress in renewable energy in 2012-2013 based on data provided in each Progress Report and checked consistency with the data in official energy statistics. It identified inconsistencies in data reported with energy statistics mostly related to biomass consumption in some Contracting Parties. Accuracy and reliability of biomass data is instrumental for the Contracting Parties in reaching the 2020 renewable energy targets and an urgent revision of energy statistics based on energy consumption surveys is needed.

    The consultant examined the consistency, effectiveness, relevance and viability of the national legislative measures with the provisions of the National Renewable Energy Action Plans, where these documents have been adopted and submitted to the Secretariat.


  • 02/2015: Final report on sustainability criteria for biofuels

    February 2015: Final report on sustainability criteria for biofuels

    In autumn 2014, the Secretariat engaged a consultant, E4tech, to provide knowledge transfer to the Energy Community Contracting Parties and Georgia (Observer) on sustainable biofuels in the transport sector. The aim of the support was to deepen the knowledge of stakeholders on the sustainability criteria for biofuels and related certification systems and to recommend appropriate solutions for biofuel uptake. The consultancy support consisted of workshops and national reports.

    The nine final reports were published by the Secretariat on 20 February 2015.  This publication puts the country reports under one cover.


  • 02/2012: Study on biomass consumption for energy purposes

    February 2012: Study on biomass consumption for energy purposes in the Energy Community

    The objective of the study was to determine the biomass consumption for electricity, heating and cooling based on representative and consistent consumption surveys. This was to result in a report on the share of energy produced from biomass in the gross final consumption of energy in the Contracting Parties. CRES was tasked to carry out biomass consumption surveys and collect data for the years 2009 and 2010. As a next step, it reconstructed the statistical energy data series back to reference year 2005 according to EUROSTAT practice.

    The resulting report provided the data required for the calculation of the 2020 RES target of each Contracting Party according to the methodology used for the EU Member States.


 Energy efficiency

  • 07/2014: Impact assessment of the Energy Efficiency Directive (2012/27/EU) for the Energy Community

    July 2014: Impact Assessment of the Energy Efficiency Directive (2012/27/EU) for the Energy Community

    The 2013 Ministerial Council proposed the implementation of Directive 2012/27/EU in the Energy Community in 2014 with certain modifications. When adopted in the Energy Community, the Directive will repeal Directive 2006/32/EC and set more ambitious energy efficiency targets. This study assesses the impact of the implementation of the Directive 2012/27/EU in the Energy Community focussing on its four key provisions: national targets; exemplary role of public buildings; energy efficiency obligation schemes; and promotion of efficiency in heating and cooling.

    For each provision different scenarios were analyzed using the best available data and assumptions regarding the cost, performance and availability of energy efficient devices in each sector with the aim of assessing the costs and benefits of each scenario.


  • 02/2012: Energy Efficiency in buildings in the Contracting Parties

    February 2012: Energy Efficiency in Buildings in the Contracting Parties of the Energy Community

    The main aim of the study was to support the Contracting Parties in their efforts to meet their obligations under the Energy Community Treaty. The study gives a comprehensive overview of status of implementation of the Building Directive in the Contracting Parties. It also tries to facilitate the Parties' future efforts in preparation of NEEAPs and to change attitude toward energy consumption in buildings. The report gives guidelines for preparing inventory of buildings and defining reference building for each category as defined in the EPB Directive.

    The study also provides instructions for developing a common methodology for national database for climate parameters and calculation of the energy performance indicator of buildings. Finally, it provides a model for assessment of potential energy savings, as well as, for calculation of needed investments.



  • 11/2013: Study on the need for modernization of large combustion plants

    November 2013: Study on the need for modernization of large combustion plants in the Energy Community

    The purpose of the study is to deliver an overall estimate on the amount of investment necessary for the modernization of thermal power plants located in the Contracting Parties, including benefits that could be obtained by implementing the EU Large Combustion Plant (LCP) and Industrial Emissions Directives (IED). The study concludes that with the exception of Albania and Moldova, all Contracting Parties have a high level of estimated external costs of power and heat generation, mainly due to the average age of the infrastructure as well as a low level of maintenance over the past decades.
    Major investments would be necessary in order to carry out the necessary environmental upgrades that could safeguard the proper implementation of the two directives. Overall compliance costs are estimated at 6,701.6 mil EUR for the LCP Directive and  7,843.8 mil EUR for the IED. Nevertheless, according to the cost-benefit analyses carried out in the study, benefits significantly outweigh the costs in the case of each and every Contracting Party, reaching an average benefit/cost ratio of 17 at the regional level.


  • 03/2011: Study on the potential for climate change combating in power generation

    March 2011: Study on the potential for climate change combating in power generation in the Energy Community

    The study presents an inventory of the greenhouse gas emissions originating from the Contracting Parties' electricity generation (including CHP). It also entails the projected increase of these emissions by 2020, based on the generation forecast.  It builds on an inventory based on the UNFCCC reporting guidelines, limited to the electricity (including CHP) generation in the non Annex 1 countries that are parties to the Energy Community.
    Based on the assessment of the study, the region's 65 thermal power plants (TPPs) are ranked based on four variables, namely age SO2, NOx and particulates emissions. In terms of future steps, the study outlines a baseline scenario and a more optimistic one and articulates recommendations for better policy-making.



  • 02/2013: Development of best practice recommendations for customer switching

    February 2013: Development of best practice recommendations for customer switching in the Energy Community

    Enabling customers to switch their suppliers is a core prerequisite for a well-working liberalised market. Whilst functional in the EU, these procedures have not yet been established in the Energy Community context. To facilitate the process, the Energy Community contracted consultants to develop best practice recommendations for customers’ supplier switching, both for electricity and gas markets.  The study identifies a best practice switching model among the EU-27 using a variety of criteria.

    The basic recommendations for the creation of a competitive framework necessary for any customer switching procedure include, inter alia, the creation of energy market associations, the swift implementation of the Third Energy Package, the implementation of full meter penetration and the entry of new suppliers to the markets.


  • 04/2012: Recommendations for quality of service data collection, reporting and auditing

    April 2012: Recommendations for quality of service data collection, reporting and auditing in the Energy Community

    In an ideal world, the national regulatory authorities would ensure liberalization of the electricity market without any worsening of the quality of electricity service. The study provides recommendations for the quality of electricity service data collecting, reporting and auditing and the gradual development of the quality of service regulation. The study refers to recently made experience of European Union Member States on the quality of service regulation and uses best practise legislation as a sort of a checklist for all the necessary activities. It addresses the three dimensions of the quality of service, namely the continuity of supply, the voltage quality and the commercial quality.


  • 02/2012: Development of best practice recommendations for smart meters rollout in the Energy Community

    February 2012: Development of best practice recommendations for smart meters rollout in the Energy Community

    The aim was to develop a set of best practice recommendations for rolling-out smart metering in the Energy Community, taking into account the EU's lessons learned and the specifics of its Contracting Parties.  The cost-benefit assessments regarding smart metering deployment as specified in Annex I of the Directives 2009/72/EC and 2009/73/EC are due by Jan 2014. The ECRB commissioned the report due to the fact that large-scale implementation of smart metering has not yet taken place in the Energy Community and that all Contracting Parties still need to carry out the economic assessment of the long-term benefits and costs of smart metering implementation. 

    The report provides a cost benefit analysis, a description of the different models, including an outline ofthe role of the regulator.  There is a template for the scope of a country-wide cost-benefit analysis, demonstrating the general set-up of a cost-benefit analysis, the steps to perform, including the resulting deliverables.



  • 10/2013: Implementation of the energy statistics acquis

    October 2013: Implementation of the energy statistics acquis

    The key objective of the project is to provide technical assistance to relevant institutions to overcome deficiencies in their statistical systems, as identified and agreed at the Energy Community level. The technical assistance by the consultant, EIHP, is to take place in the form of advising and guiding, providing expertise in developing methodological approach, quality assurance and working procedures to the relevant institutions. This should help the Parties to overcome the gaps in data collection and building their own capacity to establish independent and coherent system of energy statistics. 
    Released in November 2013, the EIHP's assessment report identifies the gaps and obstacles to the full implementation of the energy statistics acquis. It outlines the scope of further technical assistance that the Parties will receive to implement the acquis in the coming months.



  • 04/2011: State aid rules and effectiveness of State aid control in the electricity sector

    April 2011: State aid rules and effectiveness of State aid control in the electricity sector under the Energy Community Treaty

    The study covers State aid and its control in the electricity sectors (generation, transmission, distribution, supply, trade and consumption) in seven of the Contracting Parties to the Treaty. 
    The study consists of three parts. There firstly is a description of the current legal and institutional framework of each Contracting Parties for the monitoring of State aid measures granted at national level, including the specific powers and enforcement practice of the relevant national authorities. There also is a comprehensive inventory of State aid measures adopted by the authorities of the Contracting Parties.
    The Part III assesses and evaluates the legislative framework relating to State aid in the electricity sector and its practical application in the territory of each of the Contracting Parties included in the study. Benchmark for the evaluation is the law and practice of the EU.


 Cross cutting

  • 12/2019: Study on cybersecurity in energy sector

    December 2019: Study on cybersecurity in the energy sector of the Energy Community

    The starting point of this study was an assessment of the current state of development of the Contracting Parties with respect to the EU cybercrime legal framework (Budapest Convention), which forms a basis for cybersecurity legislation by defining criminal law offences and associated provisions and thus enables prosecution of cybercrime actors. Special attention has been placed on critical infrastructure and essential services identification criteria, as well as on national strategies on the security of network and information systems applicable to both the electricity and gas sectors.

    An overview for each Contracting Party was prepared based on the collected and consolidated information. International standards, training programs and cooperation initiatives as enablers for energy-related cybersecurity capacity building, were indicated at a country level.

    The report presents a set of recommendations based on the assessment of gaps between the Contracting Party legislation and EU-wide energy sector cybersecurity legislation and standards. Energy Community-wide and Contracting Party-specific cybersecurity risk assessment were addressed by these recommendations.


  • 06/2019: Study on 2030 overall targets for the Energy Community

    June 2019: Study on 2030 overall targets for the Energy Community


    The core objective was to further develop the methodology and to conduct a quantitative assessment of pathways for achieving calculated 2030 energy efficiency, RES and GHG emissions reduction targets that can be expected under aligned framework conditions in the Contracting Parties.The report describes the methodologies, data and key assumptions for deriving 2030 energy and climate targets. A set of options that can be used for target setting has been derived within each respective field and for overall GHG emission reduction.

    The study concludes that setting GHG targets is strongly needed due to several highly GHG emitting industrial processes in the Energy Community region. Setting 2030 GHG emission targets is the beginning of a convergence process towards the EU long term (i.e. 2050) target that needs to take into account countries current and historic emissions pro-files and the strong need for economic recovery.

    Several approaches exist to define an energy efficiency target for the Energy Community in 2030 as well as at the level of individual countries. Different approaches compared to energy efficiency are proposed for establishing 2030 targets for renewable energies. Here it appears wise to mimic the EU approach taken, following two steps for determining RE targets in the 2030 context. The Study claims that EE target has a strong impact on the feasibility of target achievement in RE and in GHG mitigation. Thus, an unambitious EE target challenges the achievement of RE targets and endangers the feasibility of GHG limits. In the same way, an unambitious RE target would also limit the contribution of renewables towards GHG emission reduction.


  • 11/2017: Final report on technical assistance to develop policy guidelines for the distribution network tariffs

    November 2017: Final Report on technical assistance to develop policy guidelines for the distribution network tariffs

    Building on the technical assistance provided, the consultant prepared a final report - with following focus: 

    • Assessments of the problematic issues, possible solutions and evaluation of each solutions (viability, risks and advantages)
    • Recommendation of procedural and substantial dealing with the issues of concern
      - elaboration of criteria for evaluation and recognition of costs component of concern,
      - introduction of incentive based tariffs, with the focus on quality based incentives challenges and best practices
      - allocation of costs component and tariff design.


  • 08/2017: Study on examining the implementation of EU acquis on VAT

    August 2017: Study on examining the implementation of EU acquis on Value Added Tax in the Energy Community legal order

    The goal of the study was to assess value-added tax (VAT) legislation in the Contracting Parties in order to identify obstacles to market competition and market integration stemming from non-harmonized rules governing the VAT on goods and services in the network energy businesses, and to propose measures for their harmonization. Harmonized VAT rules are meant to ensure a level playing field with regards to the supply and demand of gas and electricity, both between the Energy Community  on one side and EU Member States on the other, as well as among the Contracting Parties.

    Furthermore, the document aims to identify instances of non-harmonized VAT legislation across Energy Community Contracting Parties, and to propose steps for their harmonization in line with the EU legislation.


  • 02/2017: Study on extending the Treaty to include the rules on public procurement

    February 2017: Study on extending the Energy Community Treaty to include the rules on public procurement

    Shoud the public procurement directives be incorporated into the Treaty, significant adaptations would be required. This deems necessary considering that the Contracting Parties stand outside the legal framework of European institutions. It would be necessary to harmonize the coordination of the procedures, issuing, collection and recognition of documents issued by other Contracting Parties. The implementation process should be backed up by a portal where all energy procurements above certain financial threshold would be published.
    it also recommends full harmonisation of all public procurement and concession rules, as provided in the respective Directives. Such harmonisation would enhance cross-border competition, may automatically resolve the issues of reciprocity and close cooperation in procurement procedures.


Historic documents

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